Hacker network intrusion methods and general steps

网络安全从其本质上来讲就是网络上的信息安全。从广义来说,凡是涉及到网络上信息的保密性、完整性、可用性、真实性和可控性的相关技术和理论都是网络安全的研究领域。确保网络系统的信息安全是网络安全的目标,信息安全包括两个方面:信息的存储安全和信息的传输安全。信息的存储安全是指信息在静态存放状态下的安全,如是否会被非授权调用等。信息的传输安全是指信息在动态传输过程中安全。为了确保网络信息的传输安全,有以下几个问题:
(1)对网络上信息的监听
(2)对用户身份的仿冒
(3)对网络上信息的篡改

(4)对发出的信息予以否认
(5)对信息进行重发
对于一般的常用入侵方法主要有
1、口令入侵
所谓口令入侵,就是指用一些软件解开已经得到但被人加密的口令文档,不过许多黑客已大量采用一种可以绕开或屏蔽口令保护的程序来完成这项工作。对于那些可以解开或屏蔽口令保护的程序通常被称为“Crack”。由于这些软件的广为流传,使得入侵电脑网络系统有时变得相当简单,一般不需要很深入了解系统的内部结构,是初学者的好方法。
2.特洛伊木马术
说到特洛伊木马,只要知道这个故事的人就不难理解,它最典型的做法可能就是把一个能帮助黑客完成某一特定动作的程序依附在某一合法用户的正常程序中,这时合法用户的程序代码已被该变。一旦用户触发该程序,那么依附在内的黑客指令代码同时被激活,这些代码往往能完成黑客指定的任务。由于这种入侵法需要黑客有很好的编程经验,且要更改代码、要一定的权限,所以较难掌握。但正因为它的复杂性,一般的系统管理员很难发现。
3.监听法
这是一个很实用但风险也很大的黑客入侵方法,但还是有很多入侵系统的黑客采用此类方法,正所谓艺高人胆大。
网络节点或工作站之间的交流是通过信息流的转送得以实现,而当在一个没有集线器的网络中,数据的传输并没有指明特定的方向,这时每一个网络节点或工作站都是一个接口。这就好比某一节点说:“嗨!你们中有谁是我要发信息的工作站。”
此时,所有的系统接口都收到了这个信息,一旦某个工作站说:“嗨!那是我,请把数据传过来。”联接就马上完成。
有一种叫sniffer的软件,它可以截获口令,可以截获秘密的信息,可以用来攻击相邻的网络。
4.E-mail技术
5.病毒技术
6.隐藏技术

节省利益最好的办法就是IT外包

网络攻击的一般步骤及实例
攻击的准备阶段
僵尸网络通常被用于进行分布式拒绝服务攻击 ,其可以通过使其流量过载的方式使网络服务器瘫痪。
首先需要说明的是,入侵者的来源有两种,一种是内部人员利用自己的工作机会和权限来获取不应该获取的权限而进行的攻击。另一种是外部人员入侵,包括远程入侵、网络节点接入入侵等。本节主要讨论远程攻击。
进行网络攻击是一件系统性很强的工作,其主要工作流程是:收集情报,远程攻击,远程登录,取得普通用户的权限,取得超级用户的权限,留下后门,清除日志。主要内容包括目标分析,文档获取,破解密码,日志清除等技术,下面分别介绍。
1、确定攻击的目的
攻击者在进行一次完整的攻击之前首先要确定攻击要达到什么样的目的,即给对方造成什么样的后果。常见的攻击目的有破坏型和入侵型两种。破坏型攻击指的只是破坏攻击目标,使其不能正常工作,而不能随意控制目标的系统的运行。要达到破坏型攻击的目的,主要的手段是拒绝服务攻击(Denial Of Service)。另一类常见的攻击目的是入侵攻击目标,这种攻击是要获得一定的权限来达到控制攻击目标的目的。应该说这种攻击比破坏型攻击更为普遍,威胁性也更大。因为黑客一旦获取攻击目标的管理员权限就可以对此服务器做任意动作,包括破坏性的攻击。此类攻击一般也是利用服务器操作系统、应用软件或者网络协议存在的漏洞进行的。当然还有另一种造成此种攻击的原因就是密码泄露,攻击者靠猜测或者穷举法来得到服务器用户的密码,然后就可以用和真正的管理员一样对服务器进行访问。
2.信息收集
除了确定攻击目的之外,攻击前的最主要工作就是收集尽量多的关于攻击目标的信息。这些信息主要包括目标的操作系统类型及版本,目标提供哪些服务,各服务器程序的类型与版本以及相关的社会信息。
要攻击一台机器,首先要确定它上面正在运行的操作系统是什么,因为对于不同类型的操作系统,其上的系统漏洞有很大区别,所以攻击的方法也完全不同,甚至同一种操作系统的不同版本的系统漏洞也是不一样的。要确定一台服务器的操作系统一般是靠经验,有些服务器的某些服务显示信息会泄露其操作系统。例如当我们通过TELNET连上一台机器时,如果显示Unix(r) System V Release 4.0
login:
那么根据经验就可以确定这个机器上运行的操作系统为SUN OS 5.5或5.5.l。但这样确定操作系统类型是不准确的,因为有些网站管理员为了迷惑攻击者会故意更改显示信息,造成假象。

北京公务员考试网:2017年北京市安全生产监督管理局公务员招录综合…

还有一种不是很有效的方法,诸如查询DNS的主机信息(不是很可靠)来看登记域名时的申请机器类型和操作系统类型,或者使用社会工程学的方法来获得,以及利用某些主机开放的SNMP的公共组来查询。
另外一种相对比较准确的方法是利用网络操作系统里的TCP/IP堆栈作为特殊的“指纹”来确定系统的真正身份。因为不同的操作系统在网络底层协议的各种实现细节上略有不同。可以通过远程向目标发送特殊的包,然后通过返回的包来确定操作系统类型。例如通过向目标机发送一个FIN的包(或者是任何没有ACK或SYN标记的包)到目标主机的一个开放的端口然后等待回应。许多系统如windows、 BSDI、 CISCO、 HP/UX和 IRIX会返回一个RESET。通过发送一个SYN包,它含有没有定义的TCP标记的TCP头。那么在Linux系统的回应包就会包含这个没有定义的标记,而在一些别的系统则会在收到SYN+BOGU包之后关闭连接。或是利用寻找初始化序列长度模板与特定的操作系统相匹配的方法。利用它可以对许多系统分类,如较早的Unix系统是64K长度,一些新的Unix系统的长度则是随机增长。还有就是检查返回包里包含的窗口长度,这项技术根据各个操作系统的不同的初始化窗口大小来唯一确定它们。利用这种技术实现的工具很多,比较著名的有NMAP、CHECKOS、QUESO等。
获知目标提供哪些服务及各服务daemon的类型、版本同样非常重要,因为已知的漏洞一般都是对某一服务的。这里说的提供服务就是指通常我们提到的喘口,例如一般TELNET在23端口,FTP在对21端口,WWW在80端口或8080端口,这只是一般情况,网站管理完全可以按自己的意愿修改服务所监听的端口号。在不同服务器上提供同一种服务的软件也可以是不同,我们管这种软件叫做daemon,例如同样是提供FTP服务,可以使用wuftp、proftp,ncftp等许多不同种类的daemon。确定daemon的类型版本也有助于黑客利用系统漏洞攻破网站。
另外需要获得的关于系统的信息就是一些与计算机本身没有关系的社会信息,例如网站所属公司的名称、规模,网络管理员的生活习惯、电话号码等。这些信息看起来与攻击一个网站没有关系,实际上很多黑客都是利用了这类信息攻破网站的。例如有些网站管理员用自己的电话号码做系统密码,如果掌握了该电话号码,就等于掌握了管理员权限进行信息收集可以用手工进行,也可以利用工具来完成,完成信息收集的工具叫做扫描器。用扫描器收集信息的优点是速度快,可以一次对多个目标进行扫描。
攻击的实施阶段
1、获得权限
当收集到足够的信息之后,攻击者就要开始实施攻击行动了。作为破坏性攻击,只需利用工具发动攻击即可。而作为入侵性攻击,往往要利用收集到的信息,找到其系统漏洞,然后利用该漏洞获取一定的权限。有时获得了一般用户的权限就足以达到修改主页等目的了,但作为一次完整的攻击是要获得系统最高权限的,这不仅是为了达到一定的目的,更重要的是证明攻击者的能力,这也符合黑客的追求。
能够被攻击者所利用的漏洞不仅包括系统软件设计上的安全漏洞,也包括由于管理配置不当而造成的漏洞。前不久,因特网上应用最普及的著名www服务器提供商Apache的主页被黑客攻破,其主页面上的 Powered by Apache图样(羽毛状的图画)被改成了Powered byMicrosoft Backoffice的图样,那个攻击者就是利用了管理员对Webserver用数据库的一些不当配置而成功取得最高权限的。
当然大多数攻击成功的范例还是利用了系统软件本身的漏洞。造成软件漏洞的主要原因在于编制该软件的程序员缺乏安全意识。当攻击者对软件进行非正常的调用请求时造成缓冲区溢出或者对文件的非法访问。其中利用缓冲区溢出进行的攻击最为普遍,据统计80%以上成功的攻击都是利用了缓冲区溢出漏洞来获得非法权限的。关于缓冲区溢出在后面用专门章节来作详细解释。
无论作为一个黑客还是一个网络管理员,都需要掌握尽量多的系统漏洞。黑客需要用它来完成攻击,而管理员需要根据不同的漏洞来进行不同的防御措施。了解最新最多的漏洞信息,可以到诸如Rootshell、PacketstormSecurityfocus等网站去查找。
2.权限的扩大
系统漏洞分为远程漏洞和本地漏洞两种,远程漏洞是指黑客可以在别的机器上直接利用该漏洞进行攻击并获取一定的权限。这种漏洞的威胁性
附:渗透手法以及归类总结
XSS的总结导图
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Network security is essentially information security on the network. In a broad sense, all the related technologies and theories related to the confidentiality, integrity, availability, authenticity and controllability of the information on the network are the research field of network security. To ensure the information security of the network system is the goal of network security, information security includes two aspects: the storage of information security and the security of information transmission. The storage security of information is the security of information in the state of static storage, such as whether it will be authorized to call. The security of information transmission refers to the security of information in the process of dynamic transmission. In order to ensure the security of network information transmission, there are several problems:
(1) monitoring of information on the network
(2) counterfeiting of user identity
(3) tampering with information on the network
英博俱乐部:中东国际 抓实做细各项工作
(4) deny the information
(5) for retransmission of information
For the commonly used intrusion methods
1, password invasion
The so-called intrusion, refers to the use of some software to have but being encrypted password files, but many hackers have used a large number of a bypass or shield password protection program to finish the work. For programs that can unlock or block password protection, it is often referred to as Crack. Because the software is widely spread, makes the intrusion of computer network system sometimes becomes quite simple, generally do not need a thorough understanding of the internal structure of system, is a good way for beginners.
2 Troy Trojan
When it comes to Troy horse, as long as people know the story is not difficult to understand, it is the most typical approach is probably to a hacker can help to complete a special action program is attached to the normal procedure for a legitimate user, then the legitimate user code has been changed. Once the user triggers the program, then the hacker code that is attached to it is activated at the same time. Because of the need to have a very good programming experience, and to change the code, to a certain extent, so it is difficult to master. But because of its complexity, it is difficult to find a general system administrator.
3 monitoring method
This is a very practical but also great risk of hacking, but there are still many intrusion system hackers use of such methods is the so-called daredevil.
The communication between the network nodes or workstation is transferred through the flow of information can be realized, and when in a hub network, data transmission and did not specify a particular direction, then each node or workstation is an interface. It’s like a node says, Hey, there’s one of you guys who’s gonna send me a message.
At this point, all the system interfaces receive this information, and once a workstation says, Hey, that’s me. Join immediately.
There is a kind of software called sniffer, which can intercept passwords, you can intercept the secret information can be used to attack adjacent networks.
4.E-mail Technology
5 virus technology
6 hidden technology
General steps and examples of network attacks
Attack preparation phase
First of all, it should be noted that there are two sources of intruders, one is the internal staff to use their own work opportunities and access to access to rights should not be obtained by the attack. The other is the invasion of external personnel, including remote intrusion, network node intrusion, etc.. This section focuses on remote attacks.
The network attack is a strong system, the main work flow is: collecting information, remote attacks, remote login, ordinary users get permission to get super user permissions, leaving the back door, clear the log. The main contents include target analysis, document acquisition, crack password, log removal technology, the following are introduced.
1, determine the purpose of the attack

信息安全

The attacker before a complete attack to determine what the purpose of the attack to achieve, that is to the other side what kind of consequences. There are two kinds of common attacks: destructive and invasive. Destructive attack refers to the destruction of the target, so that it can not work, but can not control the target system. To achieve the purpose of destructive attacks, the main means of denial of service attacks (Denial Of Service). Another common purpose of the attack is to attack the target, which is to obtain a certain amount of authority to achieve the purpose of controlling the attack. It should be said that this kind of attack is more common and more threatening than the destructive attack. Because once the hacker access to the target administrator privileges can do any action on the server, including destructive attacks. Such attacks are generally the use of server operating systems, application software or network protocol vulnerabilities exist. Of course, there is another reason causing this kind of attack is the password leak, the attacker guesses or exhaustive method to get the server user password, you can then access and real as the server administrator.
2 information gathering
In addition to determining the purpose of the attack, the most important task before the attack is to collect as much information about the target attack. This information includes the type and version of the operating system, the type of service, the type and version of the server, and the relevant social information.
To attack a machine, we must first determine what is the operating system it is running on the operating system, because of the different types of loopholes in the system on which there is a big difference, so the attack methods are completely different, even with a different version of the operating system of the system vulnerability is not the same. To determine the operating system of a server is generally experience, some of the services of the server display information will reveal its operating system. For example, when we connect to a machine via TELNET, if Unix (R) V System Release 4
Login:
Then, based on experience, you can determine the operating system on this machine for SUN OS 5.5 or 5.5.l. However, it is not accurate to determine the type of operating system, because some webmasters in order to confuse the attacker will deliberately change the display information, resulting in false.
There is a not very effective method, such as query DNS host information (not very reliable) for the type of machine type and operating system of domain name registration, or the use of social engineering methods to obtain, and use some of the host group public open SNMP to query.
Another relatively accurate method is to use the TCP\/IP stack in the network operating system as a special fingerprint to determine the true identity of the system. Because different operating systems in the network protocol implementation of the various details of the underlying slightly different. You can send a special package to the target remotely, and then determine the operating system type by the returned package. For example, by sending a FIN packet to the target machine (or any packet that does not have a ACK or SYN tag) to an open port on the target host and waiting for a response. Many systems such as windows, BSDI, CISCO, HP\/UX, and IRIX will return a RESET. By sending a SYN packet, it contains a TCP header that is not defined by the TCP tag. Then the response packet in the Linux system will contain this undefined tag, and in some other systems it will close the connection after receiving the SYN BOGU package. A method for matching a specific operating system with an initialization sequence length template. It can be used to classify many systems, such as the earlier Unix system is 64K length, the length of some new Unix system is random growth. There is to check the return package contains the length of the window, the technology based on the operating system of different initialization window size to determine the only. The use of this technology to achieve a lot of tools, the more famous NMAP, CHECKOS, QUESO, etc..
It is also important to know what type of service to be provided and the type and version of each service daemon, because the known vulnerabilities are generally the. It provides the service is usually mentioned breath, such as general TELNET on port 23, FTP on port 21, WWW in 80 port or port 8080, this is only the general situation, site management can change the port number of the monitoring services according to their own will. Provide the same service in different server software can also be different, we have the software called daemon, for example, the same is to provide FTP services, you can use the wuftp, proftp, NcFTP and so many different kinds of daemon. Determine the type of version of the daemon also helps hackers exploit vulnerabilities to break the site.
In addition, the need to obtain information about the system is not related to the computer itself, social information, such as the name of the company’s website, the size of the network administrator’s living habits, telephone numbers, etc.. This information does not seem to attack a website, in fact, many hackers are using this information to break the site. For example, some webmasters use their phone number to do the system password, if the phone number is equivalent to master the administrator information collection can be done by hand, also can use the tool to complete, complete information collection tool called scanner. The advantage of using a scanner to collect information is that it can scan multiple targets at once.
Attack implementation phase
1, access to authority
When enough information is collected, the attacker is about to launch an attack. As a destructive attack, just use the tools to attack. As an invasive attack, it is often necessary to use the collected information to find the loopholes in the system, and then use the vulnerability to obtain certain permissions. Sometimes the general user permission to modify the home page to the purpose, but as a complete attack is to obtain the highest authority, this is not only to achieve a certain purpose, more important is that the attacker’s ability, which is consistent with the pursuit of hackers.
The vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers include not only the security vulnerabilities in the system software design, but also the vulnerabilities caused by improper management configuration. Not long ago, the most popular application on the Internet server provider www famous Apache homepage was hacked, the home page of the Powered by Apache pattern (feather picture) was changed to Powered byMicrosoft Backoffice pattern, the attacker is using some improper configuration of Webserver tube with database management and staff success the highest authority.
Of course, the most successful example of the attack or the use of the system software itself vulnerabilities. The main reason for the software vulnerability is the lack of security awareness of the programmer. Buffer overflow or illegal access to the file when an attacker makes an abnormal call to the software. Among them, the use of buffer overflow attack is the most common, according to statistics more than 80% of the successful attacks are the use of buffer overflow vulnerability to obtain illegal authority. The buffer overflow is explained in detail in the following sections.
Whether as a hacker or a network administrator, you need to master as many loopholes in the system. Hackers need to use it to complete the attack, and administrators need to be based on different vulnerabilities to different defense measures. Learn the latest vulnerabilities information, you can go to sites such as Rootshell, PacketstormSecurityfocus, etc..
2 expansion of authority
System vulnerabilities are divided into two kinds of remote vulnerabilities and local vulnerabilities, remote vulnerabilities that hackers can use the vulnerability on other machines to attack and get a certain degree of authority. The threat of this vulnerability
Attachment: penetration and classification
Summary diagram of XSS
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信息安全比较成功的单位,都是把80%的精力放在前期对老板、各个部门的信息安全文化教育引导工作上了,至于技术那都是很简单的事情。相反,那些信息安全举步维艰的企业,都是因为太忽略了信息安全文化教育引导工作。

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