An eventful year of network security, how to do right?

(文丨360企业安全集团解决方案部)
(security group Wen Shu 360 enterprise solution)
网络安全的多事之秋
An eventful year of network security
2016年2月黑客利用SWIFT系统漏洞,致使孟加拉央行8100万美元失窃巨款、6月乌克兰某银行被窃取近1000万美元,年末俄罗斯中央银行遭黑客攻击3100万美元不翼而飞。4月,德国Gundremmingen核电站的计算机系统发现恶意程序,发电厂被迫关闭。10月,美国域名服务器管理服务供应商Dyn遭到美国历史上最大规模DDoS攻击,东海岸网站集体瘫痪。11月,美国旧金山地铁电脑票价系统遭到黑客攻击,黑客索要100比特币作为赎金。2017年1月,美国候任总统特朗普团队公开承认,俄罗斯黑客曾经入侵并干扰美国大选。
In February 2016, hackers use SWIFT system vulnerabilities, resulting in the theft of $81 million, the Central Bank of Ukraine in June was a bank money stealing nearly $10 million at the end of the year, the Russian central bank was hacked $31 million take wings to itself. April, the German Gundremmingen nuclear power plant computer system found malicious programs, power plants were forced to shut down. October, the United States domain name server management service provider Dyn was the largest DDoS attack in the history of the United States, the east coast site collective paralysis. November, the United States, San Francisco subway computer fare system was hacked, hackers ask for 100 bitcoins as ransom. In January 2017, US President elect Trump publicly acknowledged that Russian hackers had invaded the U.S. presidential election and interference.
上述事件充分表明,黑客攻击活动又有了进一步的迭代,已经严重影响到人民的生产生活、社会的基础设施,甚至国家政权的更替。有组织、政治背景的黑客行动越来越多。其中在2016年与民众生活息息相关的基础设施成为被攻击的新热点,这也给安全防护领域带来新挑战。
These events fully show that the hacker attacks have further iterations, has seriously affected people’s production and life, social infrastructure, and even the replacement of state power. There are more and more organized and political hackers. Which in 2016 and the people’s lives are closely related to the infrastructure has become a new hot spot of attack, which also brings new challenges to the field of security.
顶层亮剑,指明道路
The sword, the way
作为全球黑客攻击最大受害国,中国政府一直不遗余力的开展一系列网络安全立法与建设,2016年11月7日,第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十四次会议通过了《中华人民共和国网络安全法》(以下简称《安全法》),该法是为了保障网络安全,维护网络空间主权和国家安全、社会公共利益,保护公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益,促进经济社会信息化健康发展而制定。共分7章79条,在“网络运行安全”的“一般规定”之外,又单列一个章节,针对“关键信息基础设施的运行安全”提出9条规定。
As the biggest victim of the global hacker attacks, the government has been carrying out China spare no effort a series of network security legislation and construction, November 7, 2016, the twenty-fourth meeting of the Standing Committee of the Twelfth National People’s Congress passed the People’s Republic of China network security law (hereinafter referred to as the security law), the law is to protect the network security, the maintenance of network space sovereignty and national security, social and public interests, the protection of citizens, legal persons and other organizations of the legitimate rights and interests, and develop and promote the healthy development of economic and social information. There are 7 chapters in the article, in the network security of the General Provisions, but also a separate chapter, for the critical information infrastructure security put forward the provisions of the 9 79.
随之而来,2016年12月27日,经中央网络安全和信息化领导小组批准,国家互联网信息办公室发布《国家网络空间安全战略》(以下简称《战略》),该文是为贯彻落实习近平主席关于推进全球互联网治理体系变革的“四项原则”和构建网络空间命运共同体的“五点主张”,阐明中国关于网络空间发展和安全的重大立场,指导中国网络安全工作,维护国家在网络空间的主权、安全、发展利益而制定。《战略》共提出九大战略任务,其中,第三点明确对“关键信息基础设施”的定义及保护要求做了说明。
Following, December 27, 2016, approved by the central network security and Informatization Leading Group, the national Internet Information Office issued a national cyberspace security strategy (hereinafter referred to as the strategy), this paper is to implement President Xi Jinping on promoting the global Internet governance system reform of the four principles and the construction of cyberspace community of destiny the five point proposal, to clarify the position of China on major development and Cyberspace Security, guidance Chinese network security, safeguard the sovereignty, security and development interests of the country in the network space and make. Strategy proposed nine strategic tasks, of which third points clear on the definition of critical information infrastructure and protection requirements are described.
图表:国家网信办发布《国家网络空间安全战略》提出捍卫网络空间主权等任务
Chart: National Network letter office issued the national cyberspace security strategy to defend the sovereignty of cyberspace and other tasks
《战略》对关键信息基础设施的定义:国家关键信息基础设施是指关系国家安全、国计民生,一旦数据泄露、遭到破坏或者丧失功能可能严重危害国家安全、公共利益的信息设施,包括但不限于提供公共通信、广播电视传输等服务的基础信息网络,能源、金融、交通、教育、科研、水利、工业制造、医疗卫生、社会保障、公用事业等领域和国家机关的重要信息系统,重要互联网应用系统等。
The definition of strategy of critical information infrastructure: national key information infrastructure refers to the relationship between national security and data leakage, beneficial to the people’s livelihood, once the destruction or loss of function may seriously endanger national security, public interests and information facilities, including but not limited to the basic information network to provide public communications, radio and television transmission services, important the information system of energy, finance, transportation, education, scientific research, water conservancy, industrial manufacturing, health care, social security, public utilities and other fields and state organs, the important Internet application system.
无论是《安全法》还是《战略》我们都可以看作是国家层面对各类网络攻击的战略指导,而其中都大幅笔墨的描述了关键信息基础设施的保障要求,可见其重要程度之高。尤其是《战略》详细的提出了关键信息基础设施保障的几点要务:
Whether it is the security law or strategic we can be regarded as the national level of all kinds of network attack strategy guide, which is a text description of the critical information infrastructure protection requirements, showing its important degree high. In particular, the strategy put forward several key issues of critical information infrastructure protection:
采取一切必要措施保护关键信息基础设施及其重要数据不受攻击破坏。坚持技术和管理并重、保护和震慑并举,着眼识别、防护、检测、预警、响应、处置等环节,建立实施关键信息基础设施保护制度,从管理、技术、人才、资金等方面加大投入,依法综合施策,切实加强关键信息基础设施安全防护。
Take all necessary measures to protect critical information infrastructure and critical data from attack. Adhere to the technology and management of both, protect and deter simultaneously, focus on recognition, protection, detection, early warning, response, disposal and other aspects, the establishment and the implementation of critical information infrastructure protection system, increase investment in technology and management, personnel, funds, in accordance with the comprehensive measures to strengthen the security of critical information infrastructure protection.
关键信息基础设施保护是政府、企业和全社会的共同责任,主管、运营单位和组织要按照法律法规、制度标准的要求,采取必要措施保障关键信息基础设施安全,逐步实现先评估后使用。加强关键信息基础设施风险评估。加强党政机关以及重点领域网站的安全防护,基层党政机关网站要按集约化模式建设运行和管理。建立政府、行业与企业的网络安全信息有序共享机制,充分发挥企业在保护关键信息基础设施中的重要作用。
Critical information infrastructure protection is the common responsibility of the government, enterprises and the whole society, in charge of operating units and the organization, in accordance with laws and regulations, system requirements, to take the necessary measures to ensure the security of critical information infrastructure, and gradually realize the evaluation before use. Strengthen critical information infrastructure risk assessment. Strengthen the party and government organs and the security of key areas of the site, the grass-roots party and government organs to the construction and management of the website according to intensive mode. The establishment of government, industry and enterprise network security information orderly sharing mechanism, give full play to the important role of enterprises in the protection of critical information infrastructure.

专访OneASP何迪生:通过RASP+WAF,构建应用层安全纵深防御体…
北京成立农业电商标准联盟

人人需知的互联网金融信息安全基础
基础防护,仍有不足
Basic protection, there are still insufficient
国内具备关键信息基础设施的国家部门、企事业单位,经过多年的信息安全发展,安全技术支撑相比其他组织相对完备、技术能力的配备比较全面,已经具备了较高的综合安全实力。但无论是事件披露还是政策引导,我们也能发现一些新型安全挑战。
Domestic has the critical information infrastructure of national departments, enterprises and institutions, after years of development of information security, security technology support compared to other organizations, a relatively complete technical ability with more comprehensive, have higher comprehensive security strength. But whether it is the disclosure of events or policy guidance, we can also find some new security challenges.
双轮驱动,有效覆盖
Two wheel drive, effective coverage
360企业安全结合大数据+的安全防护理念,依托自身强大的互联网基因和安全防护能力,以安全数据和威胁情报为主线,从“云、网、端” 多维角度进行协同联动,为具备关键信息基础设施的企业,打造专业的“全时态纵深防御能力”:

卫士通:定增近30亿加码信息安全

360 enterprise security safety protection combined with the concept of big data, relying on the Internet gene and its self-protection ability strong, to secure data and threat intelligence as the main line of linkage from the cloud, network, terminal multidimensional perspective, with critical information infrastructure of the enterprise, to build the whole temporal defense in depth professional ability:
安全情报数据能力,360拥有强大、多样、每日持续高速扩容的技术数据库,组成海量威胁情报的数据源。它是识别、检测、评估网络安全风险和企业未知威胁的大数据基础,同时,也是360为具备关键信息基础设施的国家部门或企业提供“信息共享”的前提;
Security intelligence data capabilities, 360 has a strong, diverse, continuous high speed expansion of the technical database, the composition of a massive Threat Intelligence Data source. It is the detection and identification and evaluation based on large data network security risk and enterprise unknown threats at the same time, is also the 360 in order to provide the premise of information sharing with critical information infrastructure at the state department or enterprise;
数据存储和计算能力,360搭建自主可控的、大规模数据存储和计算环境,组成威胁情报的运算基础。同时,360大规模计算能力的集约化运行和管理经验、相关安全管理体系,可以移植和分享给具备关键信息基础设施的国家部门或企业;
Data storage and computing capabilities, 360 to build a self controlled, large-scale data storage and computing environment, the formation of the operational basis of threat intelligence. At the same time, the intensive operation and management experience of the 360 large-scale computing power, the relevant safety management system, can be transplanted and shared with the key information infrastructure of the national department or enterprise;

数据挖掘能力,360运用机器智能学习、搭建自主挖掘环境等领先技术,从海量大数据信息中,快速、准确识别未知威胁攻击,组成威胁情报的技术支撑。该能力可增强风险评估的技术效能,尤其对网站的威胁识别和检测,效果更加突出;
The ability of data mining, machine learning, intelligent use of 360 to build independent mining environment and other leading technology, from massive data information, rapid and accurate identification of unknown threats, the threat intelligence technology support. The ability to enhance the technical effectiveness of risk assessment, especially for the threat identification and detection of the site, the effect is more prominent;
安全可视化分析能力,360通过实时呈现技术,将威胁攻击进行全路径画像,并实现对人眼的视觉可视化和对安全产品的智能防护“可视化”。在对企业安全人员呈现威胁的发现、取证、溯源、拓展的同时,将最新威胁情报数据传输给360安全防护设备,实现“云、网、端”协同联动,有效做到360云端的的“网络安全信息共享”和“识别、防护、检测、预警、响应、处置”的安全闭环;
The ability of security visualization analysis, 360 through the real-time rendering technology, the full path of the threat of the portrait, and the realization of the human visual visualization and intelligent protection of the security products visualization. In the enterprise security personnel present threat discovery, forensics, origin, development and the latest threat intelligence data to 360 safety protection equipment, the realization of cloud, network, terminal collaborative linkage, effectively achieve safety loop 360 cloud network security information sharing and identification, protection, detection, early warning, response and disposal;
通过能力的分析,我们发现企业技术基因完全覆盖《战略》对关键信息基础设施的任务要求。360不仅能为具备关键信息基础设施的国家部门或企业提供安全信息共享、网络安全闭环的技术支撑,同时,还能将360云集约化计算环境的安全运行和管理经验、管理制度与客户进行分享和定制。
Through the analysis of the capabilities, we find that the technology of the enterprise completely covers the mission requirements of the strategic information infrastructure. 360 not only can have critical information infrastructure at the state department or enterprise to provide safety information sharing and network security closed-loop technical support, at the same time, can be reduced 360 gathered computing environment safe operation and management experience, management system and customer share and customization.
免费的也不全都是坏的,除了隐私保护的条款需要大家特别关注外,还要注意免费通常意味着厂商不承担使用责任,也无高质量的技术支持服务,企业客户可得慎重了。
攻防有道,纵深防护
Offensive and defensive tactics, depth protection
通过“天堤”智慧防火墙,运用网络威胁检测与响应模型,融合互联网威胁情报、安全可视化、异常行为建模分析等技术,同时,与终端、沙箱、云端的防御能力相互协同,实现抵御已知威胁,发现高级威胁,化解违规安全事件,并对威胁进行溯源分析,达到网络边界的智能防护;
Through the day embankment wisdom of firewall, the use of network threat detection and response model, the integration of Internet Security Threat Intelligence, visualization, abnormal behavior modeling and analysis technology, at the same time, cooperating with terminal, sandbox, cloud defense capability, to achieve against known threats, find advanced threats, resolve violations of security incidents, and threat source analysis, achieves the intelligent network boundary protection;
通过云监测及云防护,借助云端WEB应用的安全监测、预警、防护技术,有效隐藏网站的真实路径、有力补充企业本地防御能力;
Through cloud monitoring and cloud protection, with the help of cloud WEB application security monitoring, early warning, protection technology, effectively hide the true path of the site, a strong complement to local defense capabilities;
通过“天眼”,将安全大数据技术能力在企业本地化部署,将云端安全大数据与企业本地全流量数据进行充分协同、碰撞,进而,对企业内部遭受的未知攻击进行追踪溯源、技术还原、攻击画像、攻陷面评估等,弥补传统安全产品的短板;
The eye, the ability of large data security technology deployed in the Enterprise Cloud Security localization, big data and enterprise local full flow data, and then, fully coordinated collision, the unknown attacks suffered internal tracing technology, reduction, attack, capture surface portrait evaluation, make up the short board of traditional security products;
通过“云安全平台”,从物理主机层、Hypervisor层、虚拟网络层、虚拟主机层、云内应用层、云内数据层等层面,全方位防护企业云环境。同时,360与主流云厂商进行深度合作、对接,并顺利通过了多家云厂商的官方严格测试, 确保云防护的稳定性和可靠性;
Through the cloud security platform, from the physical layer, Hypervisor layer, virtual host virtual host layer, network layer, application layer, data layer cloud cloud cloud level, environmental protection enterprises full range. At the same time, 360 with the mainstream cloud vendors to conduct in-depth cooperation, docking, and successfully passed a number of cloud vendors official strict testing to ensure the stability and reliability of cloud protection;
通过“补天”众测平台,在客户授权情况下,借力国内顶尖白帽的众测能力,在客户实际环境中进行“红蓝网络安全对抗”演习;
Through the sky in the public test platform, customer authorization, leveraging the country’s top white hat public test ability, red and blue against network security exercises in actual customer environment;
通过360安全服务的核查加固、应急流程、应变举措,借助现场的操作、演示、讲解各环节,帮助客户在真实的对抗演习中体会、熟悉网络安全应急能力的“手、眼、身、法、步”;
Through the 360 security services, emergency procedures, verification of reinforcement strain measures, with the aid of the operation and demonstration, to explain the link, to help customers experience, familiar with the network security emergency response capability in real combat exercises in the hands, eyes, body, method, step;
通过360安全运维服务,帮助客户完善系统安全运维生命周期管理能力。涉及企业应用系统从代码开发、系统上线、运行环境、系统变更、数据清理、系统下线等安全运维全生命周期。
Through 360 security operation and maintenance services to help customers improve system security operation and maintenance of life cycle management capabilities. Involved in the enterprise application system from the code development, on-line systems, operating environment, system changes, data cleaning, system offline, such as security operation and maintenance of the entire life cycle.
360“全时态纵深防御”方案价值
360 the value of full time depth defense
我们关注的不仅仅是产品,更关注企业自身安全能力的提升和真实防护效能!
We are not only concerned about the product, more concerned about the company’s own security capabilities and enhance the effectiveness of real protection!
相关方案请拨打咨询电话4008-989-360,转解决方案部。
Please dial the relevant advisory telephone 4008-989-360, turn the solution department.
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The author of the article has set up the need to be able to leave a message
微信扫一扫关注该公众号
Sweep the concern of the public, WeChat

由于各种原因人们有时可能在互联网上留下只言片语,记录下生活工作中的点点滴滴,谁知后来成了对自己很不利的法律证据。

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如何加速物联网操作系统开发?Zephyr项目引入JavaScript这样做到的

据统计软件工程师的数量远远大于硬件工程师,而物联网设备需要软件和硬件的高度融合才能实现良好的用户体验。原来只针对硬件工程师的开发环境已经无法满足物联网产品快速开发的需求,因此将web开发环境与物联网操作系统逐步融合成为物联网操作系统提供商首要考虑的问题。为了兼顾物联网设备内存限制的问题和开发者的设计需要,Zephyr操作系统引入了JavaScript。
众所周知,JavaScript是一款非常流行的编程语言,目前它已经从最早的桌面web浏览器快速发展到Node.js服务器,它也可以应用于物联网这种小型设备,让设备装上带有JavaScript Runtime的Zephyr实时操作系统(以下称为ZJS开发环境)。ZJS开发环境是基于JerryScript(一个轻量级的JavaScript引擎)和Zephyr实时操作系统开发的。当用户使用该工具编写应用程序时,ZJS开发环境可以向工程师提供Node.js API和JavaScript API子集,其中包括传感器、执行器和通信器。对于那些已经掌握JavaScript技能的开发人员,ZJS开发环境简单易学,可以快速建立原型。
ZJS开发环境最初的目标是可以顺畅无阻地在Arduino 101开发板上运行。Arduino 101是基于英特尔X86架构的一款Arduino平台。与Arduino Uno功能相似,在原有的基础上增加了低功耗蓝牙、加速度计和陀螺仪。
图1:Arduino 101开发板
英特尔让Zephyr结缘JavaScriptZephyr项目是Linux基金会推出的一款开源实时操作系统,它在一系列开发板上支持X86架构、ARM架构和ARC架构处理器,如:Arduino 101、Minnowboard Turbot, NXP FRDM-K64F和Arduino Due。JerryScript是开源的、轻量级的JavaScript引擎,它可以让内存受限的设备执行ECMAScript 5,它支持存储空间小于64KB RAM和200KB ROM的设备,它还在各种开发板上支持X86架构和ARM架构处理器。
制定移动安全策略不需太细节,高屋建瓴地指明方向即可,如何提升员工的信息安全意识呢?
2016年初,英特尔开始将两种技术结合,试图利用Zephyr操作系统推出一种可以应用于Arduino 101和未来物联网开发板的可替代开发环境,因此将JavaScript引入了Zephyr。目前,Zephyr操作系统可用C语言编程,但是编写程序需要大量的专业知识储备,而JavaScript接口可以让工程师免去大量复杂的编程工作。Zephyr目前也在探索JavaScript在各个层面上的优势,从小型嵌入式设备到大型服务器,从原型到无缝的端到端应用程序。
结合以后的开发环境最后定名为带有JavaScript的Zephyr实时操作系统(ZJS开发环境),并且向工程师提供JerryScript开发环境,用户只要添加应用接口就可以实现各种物联网硬件特性,通过工具可以简化开发工作。
各种应用可单独执行,占用空间最小化当用户建立一个Zephyr操作系统工程时,用户会先创建一个完整的系统镜像,通过操作系统组件运行单一应用程序,这些组件就是用户在实际中使用的,它可以使系统镜像占用空间最小化。Zephyr操作系统支持执行线程服务、定时器服务、内存管理、同步和数据传输服务,其中每一项都可以选择独立执行,这取决于用户是否需要这项服务。它还为其支持的芯片和板卡提供硬件驱动,如GPIO、ADC、PWM、I2C、SPI总线、UART和低功耗蓝牙。同样,这些硬件驱动也可以独立执行,从而使系统镜像占用的ROM 和RAM 最小。
通过对来自JavaScript的代码做简单的数据分析,ZJS可以利用Zephyr操作系统的可配置性建立工程。例如:如果GPIO接口被采用,所需要的驱动程序和相关的ZJS应用代码将会包含到项目中,反之亦然;如果你的项目涉及到所有的驱动程序,那么得到的系统镜像会很大,因此不适用于小型设备,如:添加低功耗蓝牙目前会用到额外的7.2KB RAM和56KB ROM。如果你很在乎系统镜像的尺寸,但必要时也可以限制额外的应用,那么你就可以对尺寸和项目占用空间进行协调平衡。
目前,ZJS可以为GPIO,ADC,PWM,I2C,BLE提供应用程序接口,并且可以为带有RGB背光的LCD面板提供简化接口,也支持setInterval/setTimeout 简化的执行子集。另外,ZJS支持物联网开放连接基金会(OCF)规范互操作性,包含相同的JavaScript API,例如在Node.js中提供Iotivity-node模块。未来会支持SPI接口,W3C通用传感器API,以及其它Node.js API开发。
图2:Arduino 101 开发板上的基于Zephyr 项目的JavaScript实时架构

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以Arduino 101 开发板为例,英特尔Quark ™ SE处理器在Arduino 101开发板上有两个MCU核:一个是X86架构,一个是ARC架构。要使这两个核的硬件得到充分利用,C语言程序员必须直接做处理。幸运的是,ZJS API可以利用来自JavaScript相同的内容使ARC硬件特性得以实现。在必要时,ZJS API可以无缝地与ARC核心上运行的支持ZJS的image通信。(见图2)
Arduino 101包含80KB RAM和384KB 闪存。默认情况下,闪存分配144KB给X86应用,分配152KB给ARC应用。ZJS需要在ARC中将代码最小化,这有利于重新分区,从而给X86应用预留更多存储空间。Zephyr工程师为Arduino固件开发了一个补丁,它可以使用户把程序从144KB的 X86区块迁移到256KB的ARC区块,处理完成然后再迁移回来。这种模式不仅为ZJS提供了足够的运行空间,而且它还提供二进制刷机包,让用户改变或恢复存储更简单。
需加强向第三方分享敏感数据的安全管理
权衡利弊,用户各取所需将JavaScript应用于小型嵌入式设备的优势如下:
很多工程师已经熟悉JavaScript,这意味着它们利用ZJS开发环境进行设计更简单;
JavaScript 使用户可以在不同的环境下编程,如PC、云端、移动端和物联网设备上,这些代码可以重用,从而提高工作效率;
工程师在这些系统之间使用通用数据交换格式JSON的潜力,这将减少寄送各种开发板的成本;
JavaScript也可以在浏览器中打开,更容易进行器件仿真。
对于任何解释语言来说都一样,从做出改变到看到改变的周期很短,JavaScript也是如此。诚然,最初这一优势会因为我们的系统无法体现,因为工程师需要编译Zephyr操作系统,并将其更新到设备上。但我们可以使用 ashell 功能来回收一些这样的好处,这是一个不安全的开发者模式,允许您与设备交互并上传新的 JavaScript 而不重刷。
Zephyr计划向工程师提供基于浏览器的IDE,这样工程师就可以在浏览器上通过仿真器进行开发。

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然而,在小型资源受限设备中使用JavaScript也有弊端:
占用额外资源。通常本地代码会更快更小,因为JavaScript引擎会消耗一部分系统RAM和ROM,因此在资源严重受限的设备上就减少了留给应用程序的存储空间。例如,工程师熟悉的最小的helloworld.js示例需要大约133KB ROM。大一点的WebBluetooth示例需要199KB ROM和42KB RAM。对比发现,相同的WebBluetooth示例通过C语言完成只需要65KB ROM和18KB RAM(JavaScript包含一个大的头文件,但未必会全都用到)。
处理中断程序复杂。C程序会处理一些简单的中断程序,在这种情况下两者性能差异也十分显著。JavaScript中执行这一逻辑时,待处理事件必须在队列中排队(相当于Zephyr操作系统的进程内容),内容交换后,再回调到JavaScript引擎,最后让本地API工作。
JavaScript实时性能不确定。例如,垃圾信息收集可以在正常的活动脉冲中引入停顿。因此,JavaScript可能不适合有严格的实时要求的应用程序,但它非常适用于普通的应用程序。然而,随着Zephyr项目的逐步成熟这类问题会减少。
总之,引入JavaScript的Zephyr操作系统系统有利有弊,用户可以根据自身设计需求选择使用,发挥其优势作用,加快项目开发。未来的ZJS会越来越完善,更大程度地满足用户需求。
关于Zephyr项目Zephyr 项目是一款小型且可扩展的操作系统,尤其适用于资源受限的系统,可支持多种架构;该系统高度开源,对于开发人员社区完全开放,开发人员可根据需要对该系统进行二次开发,以支持最新硬件、工具和设备驱动程序;该系统高度模块化平台,可轻松集成任何架构的第三方库和嵌入式设备。

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以黑制黑的手段很高超,通过整合多个黑客选手们的智慧,让他们集体承担我们面临的一些最棘手的问题,会使得计算机生态体系更加安全。

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[Department] easy production mobile phone patent disputes four, who will have the last laugh?

创业界一直有“一流企业做标准、二流企业做品牌、三流企业做技术、四流企业做产品”的说法,而其中的标准之争,核心就是指专利之争。
在高通被中国反垄断部门罚款60亿元人民币后,韩国反垄断部门也向高通收取了约合人民币59亿元的巨额罚款。罚款的理由是,高通公司存在滥用市场垄断,强迫部分手机制造商为一些不必要的专利买单。
当然,这也许是各国政府与国际厂商之间的博弈,但它同样也是专利之战中的重要一环。
业内人士认为,手机专利战或将成为手机资源争夺战的主战场,将会有更多的手机厂商不断涌入这片战场,而最终的“胜者”将是各方面能力、技术、营销手段的最优者。
诺基亚VS苹果“二回合”
先来回顾一下诺基亚和苹果的交战历史:
2009年10月22日,诺基亚公司将苹果公司诉至美国特拉华州联邦法院,诉称苹果自2007年以来各款iPhone手机上网侵犯了其10项专利,涉及无线数据、语音编码、安全和加密技术等10项与 GSM、UMTS、局域网标准相关的技术。
2009年12月11日,苹果发起反击战,诉称诺基亚E71、5310、N900等机型全都侵犯了苹果共计13项专利。
2009年12月29日,诺基亚向美国国际贸易委员会投诉苹果专利侵权,要求对苹果公司iPhone手机和其他产品发布全面禁止进口令、暂停及停止销售令。
2010年1月15日,苹果公司也向美国国际贸易委员会投诉诺基亚专利侵权,要求对诺基亚的产品实现禁止进口令。
2010年5月7日,诺基亚又苹果公司诉至美国威斯康辛州联邦地区法院,诉称苹果的iPhone和iPad产品侵害诺基亚五项重要专利,涉及改善语音和数据传输、在应用中使用定位数据等技术。
……
此外,他们之间的暗战同样不在少数,远不止于此。
2009年的智能手机领域尚且不是苹果称霸的天下,而是诺基亚,之所以它主动发起进攻,很大程度上在于阻击“强敌”。
因为那时,诺基亚的营收能力只有11亿美元,而苹果却有16亿美元的营收。
诺基亚与苹果的战争溯源可以追溯至初代iPhone发布之后。当时,诺基亚找到苹果公司进行谈判,希望苹果公司在缴纳专利费用的同时,授权一部分专利供诺基亚使用,相当于公司与公司之间的“资源置换”。双方于2011年达成共识,苹果同意授权诺基亚其专利。
然而,好景不长。
近期,诺基亚又双叕和苹果开战了。诺基亚将苹果公司告上多个国家和地区的法庭,包括美国得克萨斯州东区地方法院、德国杜塞尔多夫、慕尼黑以及曼海姆等地方法院。
起诉的原因是苹果产品侵犯诺基亚技术专利。
诺基亚称,苹果在显示器、芯片组、软件以及其他方面侵犯了诺基亚32项专利权,并已在亚洲、欧洲和美国等11个国家发起了针对苹果的40桩专利诉讼。
国内专战“烽烟四起”
我们将眼光从大洋彼岸转回国内,硝烟也一直未从褪去,这不是雾霾,的确是硝烟弥漫。
国内的厂商也在为专利战争忙的不可开交,华为、小米、oppo、vivo、HTC、一加等,纷纷应战。
2014年12月5日,爱立信将小米告上法庭,称其在印度侵犯其ARM,EDGE,3G等8项技术专利,同时申请“临时禁令”禁止小米在印度销售侵权产品。
小米则以“每台设备预缴100印度卢比(约0.05元人民币)于法院提存”的方式,临时销售使用高通芯片的手机。印度德里高等法院受理此案,但截至去年底,双方仍没有公告达成的协议。
小米之后,一加的印度之路显得也不是那么顺畅。2014年底,印度手机厂商Micromax起诉一加侵犯其独家专利。此案同样由印度德里高等法院受理,并禁止一加在印度销售,但随后德里高等法院收回了此“禁令”。
当前,全球智能手机销量增长正在放缓。国产智能手机行业有不少技术和专利积累排名靠前企业正在加快海外市场布局。
技术和专利是创新者的护城河,即便技术创新如华为这样的公司,每年需要缴纳的专利许可费用也高达3亿美元。因此在手机市场,加强专利储备仍是厂商们的必经之路。

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从尊重专利出发,到逐步拥有自己的专利,这是任何一个行业、一家企业的长远发展之道,没有捷径可走。欠的作业,迟早是要补交回来的。
各厂商“将军”该如何应战?
专利是每家手机厂商的“城墙”,也是衡量每家手机厂商创新力的重要指标。尤其在产品迭代飞速的当下,专利或成为打击竞争对手,维护自身地位的“保护伞”。
对于专利战争,有行业专家指出,在国家发改委与高通结束专利诉讼案之后,新的游戏规则已经形成,这也基本上被认定为适应市场发展需求的裁决。
同时,也有业内人士表示,国内专利诉讼一直呈增长势态,通信领域之前并没有大规模爆发,或因为专利储备不够。
因此,“新常态”是手机产业当前及下一阶段发展的基本规律与趋势,只有正确研判,顺势而为,才能够做到稳健发展、游刃有余,这一点,华为、小米、OPPO都做到了。
目前,对于国产手机行业而言,最重要的就是加强自有研发创新水平和速度,格力董事长董明珠曾多次提及,只有自己掌握核心技术才是可控的。因此,没有捷径可走。
这场没有硝烟的战争还将持续下去,作为手机厂商的“将军”们该如何应战呢?时间会给予我们答案。
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The business sector has been the first-class enterprise standards, second-class enterprises to do the brand, three flow of enterprise technology, four flow of enterprise products, which refers to the core competition of standards, patent dispute.
After Qualcomm was fined 6 billion yuan in China’s anti-monopoly department, South Korean antitrust authorities also received a hefty penalty of about $5 billion 900 million qualcomm. The reason for the fine is the existence of abuse of market monopoly Qualcomm Corp, forcing some mobile phone manufacturers to pay for some unnecessary patents.
Of course, this may be the game between governments and international manufacturers, but it is also an important part of the patent war.
The industry believes that the mobile phone patent war or will become the main battlefield of the battle for the mobile phone resources, there will be more mobile phone manufacturers are pouring into the battlefield, and finally the winner will be the best of all aspects of ability, technology, marketing.
NOKIA VS Apple two round
First to review the history of NOKIA and Apple’s war:
In October 22, 2009, NOKIA company will Apple Corp to the U.S. Delaware federal court, alleged that Apple since 2007 sections of the iPhone mobile phone Internet infringed on 10 of its patents, relates to the technology of wireless data, speech encoding, security and encryption technology are 10 and GSM, UMTS, local area network standards.
December 11, 2009, Apple launched a counterattack, claiming that NOKIA E71, 5310, N900 and other models are all violations of Apple’s total of 13 patents.
December 29, 2009, NOKIA to the United States International Trade Commission complained that Apple’s patent infringement, the requirements of Apple Corp iPhone mobile phones and other products issued a comprehensive ban on import orders, suspend and stop sales orders.
January 15, 2010, Apple Corp also complained to the United States International Trade Commission NOKIA patent infringement, the requirements of NOKIA’s products to prohibit import orders.
In May 7, 2010, NOKIA sued the Wisconsin Apple Corp and the Federal District Court, claimed that Apple’s iPhone and iPad products against NOKIA five important patents, to improve the voice and data transmission, use location data in the application of technology.

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……
In addition, they are running between the same few, far more than that.
In 2009 the field of intelligent mobile phone is not even apple dominate the world, but it is NOKIA, active attack, largely because of blocking enemies.
Because at that time, NOKIA’s revenue capacity of only $1 billion 100 million, while Apple has $1 billion 600 million in revenue.
The war of NOKIA and apple can be traced back to the early after the release of iPhone. At that time, NOKIA found Apple Corp negotiations, I hope the Apple Corp in the payment of patent fees at the same time, part of the patent license for the use of NOKIA, equivalent to the company and the company’s replacement of resources. The two sides reached a consensus on 2011, apple agreed to authorize NOKIA’s patent.
However, good times don’t last long.
Recently, NOKIA and apple to double Yi. NOKIA told Apple Corp in many countries and regions including the United States Court, district court, Texas, Dusseldorf, Munich and East Germany Mannheim local court.
The reason for the prosecution is apple products infringe NOKIA technology patents.
NOKIA said Apple in the monitor, chipset, software and other aspects of the invasion of NOKIA 32 patents, and has launched in Asia, Europe and the United States and other 11 countries against Apple’s 40 patent litigation.
最新研究调查显示,内部泄密成为企业数据外泄的头号原因,有75% 是来自企业内部人士,家贼难防啊!
The special warfare by four
We will look back from the other side of the ocean, the smoke has not faded away, this is not the haze, it is smoke filled.
Domestic manufacturers are busy busy for patent war, HUAWEI, millet, oppo, vivo, HTC, a plus, have to fight.
December 5, 2014, Ericsson will millet court, saying that in violation of its ARM, EDGE, 3G and other 8 patents in technology, while applying for a temporary injunction prohibiting the sale of infringing products in India millet in India.
Millet is to each device in advance 100 India rupees (about 0.05 yuan) to court escrow , temporary sales use Qualcomm mobile phone chip. India Delhi High Court accepted the case, but as of the end of last year, the two sides have not yet reached an agreement announcement.
After millet, a plus India road is not so smooth. By the end of 2014, India mobile phone manufacturers Micromax sued an exclusive patent infringement. The case was also accepted by the Delhi high court in India and was banned from selling in India, but then the Delhi high court withdrew the ban.
Currently, the global smartphone sales growth is slowing. Domestic smart phone industry has a lot of technology and patent accumulation of top companies are accelerating the layout of overseas markets.
Technology and patents are innovators moat, even technological innovation such as HUAWEI company, need to pay an annual licensing fee is $300 million. Therefore, in the mobile phone market, the patent is still the only way to strengthen the patent.

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From the respect of the patent, to gradually have their own patents, which is the development of any industry, a long-term development of the road, there is no shortcut to go. Less homework, sooner or later to pay back.
The manufacturer general how to fight?
Patent is the wall of each mobile phone manufacturers, but also an important measure of the innovative ability of each mobile phone manufacturers. Especially in the current rapid product iteration, the patent or to fight against competitors, to maintain their position of the umbrella.
For patent war, industry experts pointed out that after the national development and Reform Commission and Qualcomm patent litigation ended, the new rules of the game has been formed, which is basically recognized as a market development needs to adapt to the ruling.
At the same time, insiders also said that the domestic patent litigation has been a growth trend, the field of communication before and no large-scale outbreak, or because the patent reserve is not enough.

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Therefore, the new normal is the basic principle and trend of the current and the next stage of the development of mobile phone industry, only the correct analysis, flow, to be able to do the steady development, at this point, HUAWEI, millet and OPPO are done.
Currently, the domestic mobile phone industry, the most important thing is to strengthen the level of their own research and development innovation and speed, GREE chairman Dong Mingzhu has repeatedly mentioned, only to grasp the core technology is controllable. Therefore, there is no shortcut to go.
The war will continue, as mobile phone manufacturers general are how to fight? Time will give us the answer.
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某些网络安全公司内部的安全事故报告流程形同虚设,还在对外部客户进行网络安全应急响应服务,其实,多数也只停留在技术层面。

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为进一步加强全市安全生产培训工作,提高我市全民安全生产素质,夯实我市安全生产基础,1月5日至6日,清远市安全生产监督管理局在连南县三江镇新岩村广东省应急救援清远基地召开全市安全生产培训工作会议。
图为会议现场
会议主要传达国家安全生产培训工作文件精神,简要总结2016年全市安全生产培训工作,重点安排部署2017年安全生产培训工作。市安全监管局副局长、调研员唐宁出席会议,各县(市、区)安全监管局,连山县、连南县经济发展促进局分管宣教工作的局领导和具体负责宣教工作的同志,分管安全生产培训工作的校领导、培训机构负责人和相关人员参加了会议。
会议认为,我市近年来始终把安全培训作为安全生产工作的重要内容之一,作为安全生产提供思想保证、智力支持和能力保障的基础,不断强化认识,营造安全教育培训氛围;完善安全培训体系,基本形成培训网络体系;加强师资队伍建设,确保安全培训质量;采取灵活机动的培训方式,全面提高服务意识。

江苏冬云荣获2016年度云计算最佳安全奖

图为会议现场
会议强调,我市安全培训工作取得一定成绩的同时,也存在问题与不足:一些企业和监管部门依法培训的观念淡薄,安全培训责任落实不够到位;安全培训的工作基础还比较薄弱;安全培训的监督检查力度还不够。
会议要求,各地区、各单位要结合实际,切实有效地搞好各项培训工作,强化安全培训管理,全面提高安全培训工作的整体水平。一是适应安全生产工作需要,强化主体责任,认真落实各项培训工作。二是以严格把好安全生产考试关为手段,全面提升安全生产培训工作水平。三是认真搞好安全资格年度再培训。四是加大安全生产培训工作的行政执法检查工作力度。

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